** 根據：(1)Mangel et al. Breastfeeding difficulties, breastfeeding duration, maternal body mass index, and breast anatomy: are they related?. Breastfeeding Medicine, 2019,（109 名參與者，以色列）；(2)Ziemer et al. Skin changes and pain in the nipple during the 1st week of lactation. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 1993,（20 名白人參與者，美國）；(3)Ramsay et al. Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging, 2005,（28 名參與者，澳洲）。
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